Introduction to Pulaar (Tukelleur).
First and foremost, greetings are the MOST important part of the language and culture of Senegal.
A) Asalaam Maalekum Standard Senegalese Greeting (Say this to everyone
B) Maalekum Saalam
A) No mbaad daa? How are you?
B) Jam tan Peace Only
A) Ada selli? Are you well?
B) Maldoum Fine
A) No mbaadu-daa e tampere? How are you doing with tiredness?
B) Jam tan Peace only
A) No mbaadu-daa e nguleki? How are you doing with the heat?
B) Jam tan (walla ina wooly) Peace only (or it is hot)
A) No galle maa wadi? How is your house?
B) Ebbe e jam They are in peace
And this goes on, asking about different aspects of the family, the day, etc. (Pronunciation note: double vowels are said as elongated sounds, so ee is pronounced more like a longer ‘eh’ and aa is a longer ‘ah’, oo is a longer ‘oh’, etc.) There are different greetings for different times of the day as well. Most are answered by ‘Jam tan’.
Wallen e jam? Did you spend your night in peace?
A daanima no moyya? Did you sleep well?
A) A finni? Did you wake up? (this is representative of a nation with a high death rate, this is a real question)
B) Eey, mi finni Yes, I woke up
Nallen e jam? Have you passed the day in peace?
Hiiren e jam Have you passed the later part of the day in peace?
Wallen e jam Pass the night in peace.
Alaa No (not to be confused with Allah – god)
This is where this language becomes the most difficult and intricate of all of the Pulaar dialects, at least in Senegal. Similar to other Latin-based languages I have learned, there is the basic structure of pronouns: Me, you, he/she/it, we (inclusive and exclusive), you plural, and they. The beginning of a verb will change depending on if it is singular or plural. The end of the verb will change depending on if it is present/past/conditional/etc. The ending of the verb also changed depending on if it is in the first group – direct action, second group – semi active, or third group – indirect or passive action. The root (middle) of the verb is the only way to distinguish really what is being said. And even that can change…
Here are some nouns
First group verbs (direct action verbs)
Yahde To go (Root- Yah-)
Yarde To drink (Root – Yar-)
Finde To wake up
Anndude To know
Windude To write
Second group (semi-active)
Jogaade To have
Joodaade To sit
Daanaade To sleep
Walleede To be helped
Nodeede To be called (phone)
Toppiteede To be taken care of
Yahde – to go
Mi yahat I go (present or future)
Aa yahii You went (past)
O yahatno He was going (often in the past)
Min/En njahat We (inclusive/exclusive) go (present)
On njahii You all went (past)
Be njahatno They were going (often in the past)
If these are in a question, the Me, A, En, and On forms get switched around (pronoun after the verb) and the first consonant changes.
A- changes to ng (amde – to dance, changes to Be ngamat – they dance)
F- changes to p (finde – to wake up, changes to Min pinnii – we woke up)
H- changes to K (Hokkude – to give, changes to On kokkat – you guys give)
J- changes to nj (joodaade – to sit, changes to Be njoodima – they sat)
Wa- changes to mb (walleede – to be helped, changes to En mballete – we were helped)
It goes on from there. Most letters change except B, L, and the funny letters that I don’t have on my keyboard so I can’t show them)
To make something negative, like, ‘I did not go’, you change the ending to the negative ending. Mi yahii – I went. Mi Yahaani – I did not go. These are the past tense options. Present/future also has different affirmative and negative endings.
And this is just the beginning. If you want to say something about how you did something, or that you went to do something, or that you do something with someone, you add letters after the root but before the ending.
Interesting language notes
‘I want’ and ‘I like’ are the same phrase.
To drive or to ride a bike or any other form of transportation, you use the verb for ‘to run’ and change it to mean ‘to make run’ and then add whatever it is that you are making run, be it car, bike, etc.
Never say ‘that’s not true’, which essentially accuses someone of being a liar. There are many ways to beat around the bush by saying, ‘I don’t think so’ or ‘I disagree’.
Greetings are always answered as ‘fine’ or ‘peace only’. No one actually talks about hardships if they are having them. Bad things are brushed aside, not acknowledged. It is almost shameful to talk about difficulties.
If you make plans to do something or say you are going to do something, always add ‘Inshallah’ – god willing, or ‘Si Alaah jabbii’ – if god agrees. Nothing is for sure and they don’t want to jinx anything, so if anything is said to be happening in the future, it is always unsure. This comes from a history of the outcomes of things being unsure and things not always working out as planned. Even ‘until tomorrow’ a common evening goodnight phrase, is followed by ‘Inshallah’. People historically haven’t made it through the night. It is with god’s willing that that person wakes up the next day. Americans often get frustrated at this phrase, however, because it can seem like an evasive tool to get out of doing work. Senegalese people never say no. They will always accept invitations, agree to work with you, but they don’t always mean it necessarily. It is just rude to turn something down outright. So many times, when making meetings or plans, the promise will follow with “Inshallah’, and, consequently, that person might not show up. It may or may not have anything to do with the word. It could just be the culture of not turning down invitations or requests, but nevertheless ‘Inshallah’ is an interesting aspect of the culture. Defining both the history of life and it’s uncertainties in the African regions, but also of the lax pace of life as it stands presently. Things may or may not get done. People may or may not show up to meetings or work. Tea must be made multiple times a day (can take over an hour). Prayers must be said 5 times a day. It is an interesting culture. This one word embodies so much of it.